The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) classification and diagnostic tool.
In the United States the DSM serves as a universal authority for psychiatric diagnoses.
The limitations of the study are discussed and some recommendations are made for future practice. Crucial to the measurement of empathy is the availability of an instrument that can validly measure the empathy of medical students.
Although twenty instruments have been employed to measure the empathy levels of healthcare professionals .
The DSM-5 was published on May 18, 2013, superseding the DSM-IV-TR, which was published in 2000. Leigh, Ph D (Gallaudet University, Washington DC); Elina Manghi, Psy D (Adler School of Professional Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois); Izabela Z. Geisinger, Ph D (University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska); Kay Kriegsman, Ph D (independent practice, Bethesda, Maryland); Irene W.In addition, the task force is grateful to Rosemarie Alvaro, Ph D, Thomas Bartlett, Psy D, Jim Butcher, Ph D, Susan Drumheller, Ph D, Michael Dunn, Ph D, Stephen Flamer, Ph D, Alan Goldberg, Psy.D, ABPP, JD, Virginia Gutman, Ph D, Dara Hamilton, Ph D, Roger Heller, Ph D, Tamar Heller, Ph D, Rosemary Hughes, Ph D, William Kachman, Ph D, Monica Kurylo, Ph D, Kurt Metz, Ph D, Sharon Nathan, Ph D, Rhoda Olkin, Ph D, Sara Palmer, Ph D, Diana Pullin, JD, Ph D, Jeff Rosen, Ph D, Cheryl Shigaki, Ph D, David Smith, Ph D, Martha Thurlow, Ph D, Michael Wehmeyer, Ph D, Julie Williams, Psy D, and Gerry Young, Ph D for their assistance in providing important feedback on several earlier drafts of the guidelines; to Diana Spas (University of Montana, Missoula, Montana) for her thorough and thoughtful review and editorial suggestions; to APA’s governance groups who reviewed this document and provided valuable feedback and suggestions; and to the myriad other individuals for their careful review and comments.